Indian intelligence agencies
Intelligence agencies have an important role in maintaining the external and internal security of any country. There are many intelligence agencies work in India which have different roles. Let us discuss some of these agencies.
Intelligence Bureau (IB)
The Intelligence Bureau (IB) is India’s domestic internal security and counter-intelligence agency controlled by the Ministry of Home affairs. It is the oldest agency of India. IB was formed in 1887. It monitors the movement of suspected people to tackle the problems of terrorism and extremism in the country. IB is used to gather intelligence inside India. The senior most officer of the Indian Police Service is appointed to the post of Director of IB. The current director of the Intelligence Bureau is tapan deka, took over from Arvind Kumar on 24 June 2022.
Research and Analysis Wing (RAW)
It was formed in September 1968. The main function of RAW is to collect information, prevent terrorism and carry out covert operations etc. RAW headquarter is in New Delhi. Before the formation of the Research and Analysis Wing, the Bureau of Investigation (IB) used to collect foreign information. But due to not working properly in the Indo-China war of 1962 and Indo-Pakistani war of 1965, the Government of India realized the need of such an organization which could collect external information in an independent and efficient manner. The main function of RAW is to collect intelligence information related to foreigners. If any country or organization is conspiring against India, then it is also the job of the IB to find out.
Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI)
The establishment of CBI was recommended by the Santhanam Commission (1962.64) constituted for the prevention of corruption. In 1963, the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) was formed by on an all-India level. With a view to investigate serious crimes such as corruption, fraud and social crimes, especially hoarding and profiteering. Its headquarter is in Delhi. The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) is functioning under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions. CBI does not take matters related to terrorism.
National Investigation Agency (NIA)
The government formed the National Investigation Agency under the National Investigation Agency Act, 2008 to rein in anti-national forces and investigate other terror-related crimes. The headquarters of this organization is located in New Delhi. It has branches at Hyderabad, Guwahati, Kochi, Lucknow, Mumbai, Kolkata, Raipur and Jammu. After the 2008 Mumbai attacks, the need for a central agency to counter terrorism led to the establishment of the National Investigation Agency. The National Investigation Agency is empowered to deal with terror-related crimes in the states without requiring special permission from the states.
Wildlife Crime Control Bureau (WCCB)
The Government of India constituted the Wildlife Crime Control Bureau as a statutory body on 6 June 2007 by amending the Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972. This Bureau is headquartered in New Delhi. It has five regional offices at Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai and Jabalpur. Wildlife Crime Control Bureau (WCCB) is a statutory under the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change to combat organized wildlife crime.
Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA)
The Defence Intelligence Agency (D.I.A) is an intelligence agency responsible for providing and coordinating defence and military intelligence to the Indian Armed Forces. It was created in the year 2002 after the Kargil infiltration in 1999 on the recommendations of a Group of Ministers. Its job is to collect intelligence related to the defense and share it with the three armed forces. DIA controls the Indian armed forces technical intelligence assets – the Directorate of Signals Intelligence, a tri-service agency and the Defence Image processing and analysis center
National Crime Record Bureau (NCRB)
The Tandon Committee, the National Police Commission (1977-1981), and the task force of the Ministry of Home Affairs recommended the establishment of the National Crime Records Bureau in 1986 to collect and maintain information on crime and criminals. in the year 2009, the National Crime Records Bureau was entrusted with the responsibility of monitoring, coordinating and implementing the Crime and Criminal Tracking Network and Systems (CCTNS) project. This project will connect around 15000 police stations in the country and 6000 higher offices in the country.