The Kyoto Protocol – Commitment to stop climate change

The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty designed to prevent climate change caused by global warming. It commits countries involved in this treaty to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. It is based on the opinion of scientists, the first part of which is that global warming is occurring and the second part that it is more likely to be caused by man-made CO2 emissions. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan on 11 December 1997 and entered into force on 16 February 2005. Currently there are 192 parties to this protocol. Canada withdrew from the protocol in December 2011.

In short, the Kyoto Protocol operationalizes the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change by committing industrialized countries and economies in transition to limit and reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions in accordance with agreed individual targets.

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Purpose of Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto commits all countries involved in the treaty to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Kyoto bans emissions in its member countries around the world. According to this restriction, it is necessary to reduce emissions in the world by an average of 5.2% between 2008 and 2012, considering 1990 as the base year.

The purpose of the Protocol is to establish a legally binding international agreement under which all participating countries must commit themselves to reducing global warming and greenhouse gas emissions. At the 2012 Kyoto Protocol summit, all nations involved agreed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by an average rate of 5.2% below 1990 levels.

In this agreement on 14 January 2009, 183 countries joined. Under this, a certain limit has been fixed for the developed countries to cut emissions of greenhouse gases.

Targets for the First Commitment Period

The targets for the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol cover emissions of six main greenhouse gases, namely:

  • Carbon dioxide (CO2);
  • methane (CH4);
  • Nitrous oxide (N2O);
  • hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs);
  • Perfluorocarbons (PFCs); And
  • Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)

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