After the war between India and Pakistan, a treaty was signed between Indira Gandhi on the Indian side and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto on the Pakistani side on 2 July 1971 in ‘Shimla’. This treaty is called the ‘Shimla Agreement‘. During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, about 90 thousand soldiers of Pakistan were taken prisoner by India. In this war India also occupied a large part of Pakistan. As a result, the Simla Agreement was signed between the current Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and the President of Pakistan Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. Under the Simla Agreement, the two countries undertook to work towards the elimination of conflict and the establishment of lasting peace, friendship and cooperation.
India and Pakistan resolved that under this agreement, the two countries would end the conflicts and promote a friendly and harmonious relationship and a permanent settlement in the sub-region. Will continue to work for the establishment of peace.
In order to achieve this objective, the Government of India and the Government of Pakistan have agreed as follows:-
- These two countries will always respect each other’s national unity, territorial integrity, political independence and sovereign equality.
- The core issues and causes of conflict that have plagued relations between the two countries for 25 years will be resolved through peaceful means.
- Any differences shall be settled by peaceful means and through bilateral negotiations.
- The relations between the two countries shall be governed by the principles and purposes of the Charter of the United Nations.
- Forces shall be withdrawn to each other’s side of the international border.
- In this connection delegations from the two countires will meet from time to time to work out the necessary details.
- Under this Shimla Agreement agreement, all the disputes between India and Pakistan will be resolved through peaceful negotiations. No country will raise these disputes between the two in international forums.
- Under this agreement, the soldiers taken prisoner during the war will be handed over to their country.
Its Impact on India and Pakistan
The Shimla Agreement of 1972 between India and Pakistan was supposed to be a peace accord that would finally bring an end to the conflict between the two countries. Pakistan has not honoured the agreement. Paksitan used violence and aggression as a way to try and assert its control over the disputed territory of Kashmir. Pakistan has violated the Shimla Agreement hundreds of times. Since then, Pakistan has often raised the Kashmir dispute in international forums many times.
It was decided in this agreement that both the countries would not allow third party interference. Both countries would resolve their issues through peaceful means. Here was a severe war-like situation between both countries around Kargil in 1999 When the Pakistani army infiltrated Kargil and forced the Indian army to fight. The Indian Army gave a befitting reply and defeated Pakistan this time as well. Pakistan is still doing terrorist acts in India through infiltration.
The Shimla Agreement is the cornerstone of peace and stability in the region and must be respected by both sides. Any violation of it by Pakistan is a serious security concern for India and should be dealt with sternly.