India’s nuclear policy
India had made its nuclear policy in 2003, according to this, India will not attack any country with nuclear until the enemy country attacks India. Nuclear weapons were not used against countries that do not have nuclear weapons. If there is any chemical or biological attack against India or against Indian security forces, then India will keep the option of nuclear attack open in response.India opposes nuclear weapons control measures and treaties that are partisan and not time bound.
That is why it did not sign the NPT 1968 and CTBT 1996 treaties.The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty prohibits non-nuclear powers from acquiring nuclear capabilities. And there is no restriction on nuclear weapons by nuclear-armed nations. Similarly, CTBT also prohibits all tests for the manufacture of nuclear weapons. India is a supporter of comprehensive and universal disarmament of nuclear weapons.
India’s nuclear test
India conducted its first nuclear test in May 1974 during the regime of former Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. The name of this nuclear test was Smiling Buddha After this, the Pokhran.2 test was a part of a series of five nuclear bomb tests conducted at the Pokhran test range in May 1998. India conducted 5 nuclear tests on 11 and 13 May 1998 at the Pokhran nuclear site in Rajasthan.At that time, Prime Minister of the country Atal Bihari Vajpayee declared May 11 as National Technology Day in 1999. National Technology Day marks the anniversary of Pokhran’s nuclear tests in Rajasthan.
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty-NPT
The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty was proposed in Ireland. The main objectives of the Non-Proliferation Treaty were to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and nuclear technologies, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to achieve the goal of nuclear disarmament. Finland was the first to sign this treaty. At present total of 191 countries have signed this treaty. India is one of the five countries that have not signed this treaty. These countries are Pakistan, Israel, North Korea and South Sudan. According to this treaty, only the country is nuclear-rich, which has made nuclear weapons before 01 January 1967.
According to the treaty, the rest of the other countries are considered nuclear-weapon countries. On this basis, India does not get this status at the international level. Because India did the first nuclear test in 1974. India has called the treaty discriminatory. According to this treaty, only five powers Russia, China, Britain, America and France have been given the monopoly of nuclear capability.
India’s nuclear power program
Dr. Homi Jehangir Bhabha is considered the father of India’s nuclear energy program. Due to his efforts, the Atomic Energy Research Center in India was established in 1948.Atomic Energy Commission was established in the year 1948 for the work of policy making for nuclear power generation in India. In the year 1954, Bhabha Atomic Research Center (BARC) was established at Trombay, Mumbai. BARC was established for research on atomic energy. India’s first nuclear research reactor Apsara was established here. he first power plant in India was established in the year 1969 at Tarapur, Maharashtra with the help of USA. India’s second nuclear power station was established near Kota in Rajasthan and its first unit started functioning in August 1972.
List of nuclear power plants in India:
It is one of the oldest power stations in India. Tarapur Atomic Power Station was commissioned in the year 1969 with the help of USA. Its total capacity is 1400 MW.
The first reactor at Rawatbhata was commissioned in December 1973 with an installed capacity of 100 MW. At present its capacity is 1180 MW.
Kudankulam, Tamil Nadu
It is located in Kudankulam village of Tirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu. This power plant, built with the help of Russia, has the capacity to generate electricity from two reactors.
Kakrapur Power Station was commissioned in 1993. It is located in the city of Vyra in the state of Gujarat, India. It has a total capacity of 440 MW.
Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu
It is India’s first completely indigenously built nuclear power station with a total capacity of 440 MW.
This nuclear power plant is located near Kali river in Uttar Kannada district of Karnataka. It has a total capacity of 840 MW.
Narora, Uttar Pradesh
Narora Atomic Power Station is a nuclear power plant located at Narora in Bulandshahr district in Uttar Pradesh, India. The capacity of this power plant is to generate 400 d of electricity.