Birsa Munda, born on November 15, 1875, in the village of Ulihatu near Ranchi, emerged as a significant figure in India’s freedom movement and a revered tribal leader from Jharkhand. He hailed from the Munda tribe, a prominent tribal community in the region. Birsa’s upbringing was deeply intertwined with the cultural heritage and practices of his people, instilling in him a sense of pride and identity. He emerged as a significant figure in India’s struggle for independence.
Education and Conversion
Birsa received his early education under the guidance of his teacher Jaipal Nag at Salga. He briefly converted to Christianity and attended the German Mission School, but he abandoned this path upon realizing that the British aimed to convert tribals to Christianity through education. Consequently, he dropped out and later established a faith called Birsait, which gained traction among the Munda community.
Revolt Against British Activities
Birsa’s movement posed a challenge to British activities in the region. Rejecting the British and Christian missionaries, he declared that the real adversaries were the British colonial authorities, not the Christian Mundas. The Munda revolt was a response to unjust land grabbing practices by colonial and local authorities. He led various rebellions against the colonial authorities and emerged as a unifying force for different tribes in Jharkhand.
Religious and Social Influence
Birsa Munda’s impact extended to challenging British Christian missionaries and their conversion efforts. He revived tribal culture, counteracting the negative effects of British missionary work. As a healer and preacher, he gained a reputation for his spiritual and miraculous abilities. His teachings resonated with the tribal population, and he earned a revered status among them.
Slogan and Resistance
Birsa’s slogan, “Abua raj ete jana, maharani raj tundu jana” (End the queen’s rule, establish our kingdom) gained recognition across Jharkhand, Odisha, Bihar, West Bengal, and Madhya Pradesh. He led a series of attacks against British loyalists, targeting the Anglican and Roman Catholic missions.
Arrest and Impact
Birsa’s leadership ignited a significant uprising, but authorities eventually arrested him in August 1895 and sentenced him to two years of imprisonment. After his release in 1898, he continued to organize secret meetings, culminating in the Ulgulan (revolution) in 1899, spreading across areas like Khunti, Tamar, Basia, and Ranchi. Birsa and his followers confronted British loyalists, culminating in clashes and attacks.
Formation of the Munda Council
In 1899, Birsa Munda established the Munda Council with the goal of uniting Jharkhand’s diverse tribes to challenge British dominance. The council’s inaugural meeting in 1900 resulted in the drafting of a resolution that demanded the British cease interference in tribal affairs. Moreover, the council aimed to establish a system of self-governance, preserving tribal customs and traditions.
Legacy and Recognition
Despite his efforts, Birsa Munda’s movement subsided after his arrest and subsequent death in jail on June 9, 1900. His legacy endures with various organizations, structures, and celebrations honoring his contributions. His birth anniversary, November 15, is celebrated as Janjatiya Gaurav Divas, and his impact is commemorated through institutions like Birsa Munda Airport Ranchi and Birsa Institute of Technology Sindri, among others. Birsa Munda, also known as “Dharthi Aba” or “Father of the Earth”. He was a prominent figure in the resistance against British colonial rule in the mid-1890s.