The American Revolution was one of the most pivotal events in American history. It was a time of great turmoil and change, and it ultimately resulted in the founding of the United States of America. The American Revolution was a long and hard-fought battle, and it is a testament to the strength and determination of the American people.
In 1588 AD A fierce naval battle took place between England and Spain, in which Spain was defeated and British naval superiority was established and England established its colonial settlements in America. By 1775 AD 13 British colonies had been settled in America. These diverse colonies were presenting the ideal of a mixed culture, in which landless farmers from countries like Britain, France, Germany, Portugal etc., aspirants of religious freedom, traders and middlemen etc. had settled.
In the northern part of these American colonies, England received fish and wood. The central part produced industries such as wine and sugar. The southern part produced cereals, sugarcane, tobacco, cotton and plantation crops.
The British government had complete control in these colonies of Britain. Due to which priority was given to the interests of Britain. In the 18th century, some objectionable exploits and other circumstances in relation to these colonies gave rise to discontent and hatred among the people of the colonies. The people stood up against this exploitative colonial power and finally the independent existence of the colonists was established.
Cause of American War of Independence
The American War of Independence was fought for many reasons. colonists were angry about being taxed without representation, and they felt that the British government was interfering too much in their affairs. They also wanted to be able to govern themselves and have the same rights as people in Britain.
Due to the ability of Emperor George II and the neglectful policies of the British Prime Ministers, the residents of America waged war against the British in 1775 AD with the help of France and Spain under the leadership of George Washington, this war is called American Revolution and America’s War of Independence.
Following are the reasons for the American Revolution-
England had 13 colonies in America, to control the colonial rule, the British government appointed the governor, in addition, there was a legislative assembly to assist in the work of governance, in which there were elected representatives by the people. The British government had the absolute right to accept or repeal the laws. England’s interest was hidden in whatever rules the government of England imposed on them, but due to conflicting interests, the conflict between the British governor and the elected assembly goes on.
The colonies were not given any representation in the British Parliament. Hence many claimed that the British government had no right to tax the colonies. He used the slogan ‘No taxation without representation’. These all the 13 colonies organized their organization and fought against England.
Seven year war-
There were many French settlements in America, due to which the interests of England and France clashed there. At the same time, from 1756 to 1763 war broke out in the countries of Europe for the expansion of power. This war lasted for seven years, hence it is called the Seven Years War. As a result of this war, the French threat to America from the north ended.
Now the colonies got an opportunity to revolt against Britain. England spent money to protect the colonies, due to which many taxes were imposed on the colonies. The shipping laws, commercial laws, sugar act etc. already applicable to the colonies were strictly enforced. But the colonists were not ready to pay these taxes. Thus the Seven Years War played an important role in the beginning of the American War of Independence.
Keeping in view its profit, the British rule imposed such business rules on the colonies, which benefited England but remained a hindrance in the development of the colonies. England wanted to control the trade of the colonies and monopolize their markets. The inhabitants of the colonies could not bear this economic exploitation for long as a result they broke the American freedom struggle.
Laws made by England-
Under this law it was announced that only English ships would be allowed to bring goods into England. Under this law all kinds of raw materials necessary for England should not be exported from the colonies to other places without bringing them to the ports of England. According to this, goods exported from Europe to the American colonies would first be brought to the ports of England. This law benefited the merchants of England and the owners of merchant fleets at the expense of the American consumer. These laws were unjust to the colonists.
Under this law, goods produced in America such as rice, iron, wood, tobacco, etc. could be exported only to England.
Policies were adopted to hinder the growth of industries and commerce in the colonies. The industrial goods that were produced in England could not be produced by its American colonies, the development of industries such as iron, steel and textiles was restricted in the colonies.
- Sugar Act– Under this, the import of foreign rum coming from countries other than England was stopped. The import tax on molasses was increased. On the other hand, other goods like alcohol, silk, coffee etc. were also taxed.
According to this act, the currency used in America’s trade commerce and bill industry will be of England only.
- Stamp Act– To get the money, the British Parliament passed the Stamp Act and imposed additional taxes on the colonies. In 1765, the British Parliament enacted the Stamp Act. Stamping was made mandatory on every legal document. Due to this there was widespread opposition, in opposition to the Stamp Act, 9 colonies together called a session of the Stamp Act Congress in New York in October 1765. Due to its strong opposition, the Rockingham government had to repeal this act in 1765.
Townsand’s new action plan-
In 1767, the government of William Pitt was formed in England and its Finance Minister Townshend speculated that Americans oppose only internal taxes and they have no problem with external taxes. In protest against this, on March 05, 1770, there was a clash between the youth and army of Boston, due to which five youths were killed. This day is called the Boston Massacre. Because of this, the government had to withdraw the Townshend tax scheme and the tax on tea was reduced from 6 paise to 3 paisa.
The contemporary cause-
The contemporary cause of the American freedom struggle was the tea policy of the British government. Under this policy, the British East India Company was allowed to send tea directly through its ships to the British colonies in America. Before this, tea passed through Britain where it had to pay more tax. Even after this, the business class of America was angry with this and the tea business of the local merchants of America was also getting ruined.
December 16, 1773, under the leadership of Samuels Adams, 340 boxes of tea were thrown into the sea at the Boston port of Massachusetts. This is called the boston Tea Party. After this incident, Lord North and King George II of England took it as a challenge. After it cases of all American revolutionaries were transferred to England. Boston harbor was closed until the culprits were caught.
America’s War of Independence-
- In protest against these laws made by the British government, the first session of the American Congress was held in Philadelphia in 1774. In which the demand for the restoration of independence in the colonies was made. But this attempt to negotiate with the British government failed.
- As a result, a war broke out between the British government and the colonists.
- King George III of England declared the American colonies as rebels one after the other, and started recruiting soldiers to suppress the rebellion.
- After this, on 10 May 1775, the second session of Congress was called in Philadelphia which was presided over by John Henkock and the leadership of the army was handed over to George Washington
- On July 4, 1776, America declared independence.
- In 1778 France and in 1779 Howland and Spain also joined America in opposing England.
- The purpose of France in this protest was not to help America. Its purpose was to avenge the Seven Years War by helping in the disintegration of the British Empire. Spain declared war on England because it also wanted to take Gibraltar back from England.
- Thus, in 1781 Cornwallis, the British army chief, had to surrender in the Battle of Yorktown and the American general George Washington emerged as an important leader.
- The American War of Independence came to an end with the Treaty of Paris on September 3, 1783. The American Constitution came into force on June 21, 1788.