National Science Day is celebrated on 28 February. The Raman effect was discovered on 28 February 1928. On this occasion, since 1986, every year 28 February is celebrated as ‘National Science Day’ in India. It is celebrated with the aim of creating awareness in the society about the benefits of science and inculcating scientific temper.
The basic objective of National Science Day is to attract and inspire students towards science and to make the general public aware of science and scientific achievements. On this day programs related to various scientific activities are organized in all science institutes, schools and colleges and training institutes. Important events include lectures, essays, writings, science quizzes, science exhibitions, seminars and symposia etc. by scientists. National and other awards are also announced to promote the popularity of science. Special prizes are also kept to increase the popularity of science. National Science Day calls for the continuous advancement of science in the country.
Discovery of Raman Effect
Indian scientist Professor Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman discovered the Raman effect on this day in 1928 in Kolkata. Molecular and atomic structure of particles can be detected with the help of Raman effect. CV Raman was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1930 for this historic discovery. Till that time no person from India or Asia had received the Nobel Prize in Physics. Raman used alcohol to demonstrate this effect at an award ceremony. Later during dinner, when alcohol was served, Raman did not even touch it due to Indian traditions.
Uses and Importance
According to the Raman effect, when single-wavelength light (monochromatic) rays pass through a transparent medium – solid, liquid or gas, then apart from the rays of the original light, rays of very weak intensity are also present at a constant distance. These rays are called Raman-rays. These rays arise from the gain or loss of energy in the rays of the original light due to the vibration and rotation of the particles of the medium. The Raman effect is an effective tool in the study of the molecular structure of chemicals.
It is also of great importance in other branches of scientific research. The discovery of the Raman effect had also proved Einstein’s theory in which he said that along with waves in light, the properties of molecules are also found to some extent.
Earlier, Newton had told that light is just a wave and the properties of molecules are not found in it. Einstein gave the opposite theory and it was proved by the Raman effect. Subhash Singh, professor of physics at Acharya Narendra Dev College, said, “The Raman effect is important in itself because it paves the way for further discoveries due to the discovery of the molecular and atomic structure of compounds present in matter.